The truth is, some people will complain and some will view the change as a weapon of mass disruption and resist its implementation.
The role of action planning and plan enactment for smoking cessation
Be prepared to maneuver through some minefields and to deal with a plethora of fear and concern when introducing change. In our consulting practice, we create significant change in many companies we work with. Interestingly, the first barriers we often face are from the very executives who call us in to make the changes.
They are tentative about taking on the unknown, disruption, fears, and concerns that accompany the change process. We help them prepare for the tidal wave of potential opposition with an overwhelming, compelling, and persuasive plan to ensure successful adoption. Understand the potential obstacles from allquarters for the change plan you have in mind.
Factor into your execution plan the time to deal with potential resistance. Regardless how well you plan and present the project, you still may encounter some degree of opposition, so be patient and prepared to deal with it. In its simplest form, a change plan is an explanation of the proposed changes and the steps needed to achieve them. Length and formality depend on your particular situation. Here are the essential elements:. Create your change plan with a clearly expressed written document that provides the necessary road map to ensure flawless execution.
John Kuhn and Mark Mullins are serial entrepreneurs and business consultants. Click here for more information. Training magazine, published by Lakewood Media Group, is a professional development magazine that advocates training and workforce development as a business tool. Skip to main content. Search form Search. The tool can be useful both in providing a better understanding for the group, and in helping to approach a solution in a more strategic way.
A sample problem tree can be seen on the next page, taking the problem of street children as a starting point. This is the procedure a group would use to draw one up for their own issue:. It is important to know what you would like to be a result of your action! What would count as a success? Get the group to think about what they are trying to achieve, and how they will measure whether or not they have been successful. They may find it useful to go back to the problem tree and use this to identify concrete solutions. In general, attacking the roots will lead to solutions further up the tree, for example, if there was more social housing, or if rents were lower, many more young people could be given a roof over their heads.
The only thing that bothered me was that we waited so long to make this protest. Rosa Parks. Remember that for a complicated issue, a change in policy is often difficult to bring about, and rarely follows from just one action. The group needs to be realistic about what it can hope for: remind them that even a "small " result can be an invaluable contribution to resolving a larger problem. Effective campaigns are nearly always built up from exactly such "small" actions, and anything achieved by your group can either be built on later on, or picked up by other activists concerned about the problem.
It may be helpful for the group to brainstorm some general reasons for taking action. This may help them to pick out those most relevant to their own issue, and identify a number of specific objectives that they feel it is realistic to achieve. Question: Think of a protest action you witnessed or heard about recently: what do you think the organisers were trying to achieve?
The role of action planning and plan enactment for smoking cessation
Were they successful? Why or why not? Your group has now decided on an issue, and has an idea of what they might be trying to do.
It is time to decide on the mechanism they will use to achieve their aim. The flowchart on the next page can be used as a step by step approach to making that decision, and towards ensuring that what they are trying to do can indeed be achieved by using the method they decide to employ. The flowchart takes you through 5 steps towards deciding on the most appropriate form of action, and illustrates how the process might work for 5 hypothetical examples.
Planning your action - diagram. This step is simple: it will be the result of the problem tree exercise that the group carried out. If you did not carry out the problem tree activity, try to get the group to formulate the problem they want to address as accurately as possible. Unless you are hoping to resolve the problem immediately, the target audience for your action may not be the person or people who can make the final change that you are looking for.
Your action is quite likely to be no more than a step towards making the change; for example, you may be trying to alert the public to an issue in order to put pressure on the government.
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Or you may be trying to set up a local group so that the group can work on the issue you are concerned about. Your target audience in box B will be the group of people you are directing your action towards. It may consist of more than one group of people; for example, in the first case in the flowchart, people in the town and the company directors are both target audiences for the action. The action depends on people in the town signing a petition which is then presented to the directors of the company, in the hope that they will be influenced by it, and be forced to clean up the river.
This question again relates to your action, but not necessarily to the final change you might be aiming for. It is unlikely, for example, that an action by your group will be able to end exploitation of child workers by multinational companies!
However, you may be able to generate interest in the problem, which will encourage others to take action in different ways, and that, in turn, may be enough to bring about a change in company policy or in government regulations applying to those companies. In this box you need to think about what the action is meant to achieve, and how you will know whether or not you have succeeded.
Try to encourage the group to be as specific as possible, to think about what it might mean for the action to go well or badly. Use the prompts in Section 3. This question is not yet about the mechanism that the group decides to use, it is about how the action is supposed to work, and will often relate to the psychology of changing people's minds or making people realise that they need to do something differently.
It is a very important question that is often forgotten, and ignoring it could affect the impact of your action. Suppose, for example, that a group is worried by the rise in popularity of nationalist or proto-fascist organisations, and wants to address that issue. They might think of putting information leaflets through the doors of people living in an area where support for these organisations is high. However, if they do not recognise why people are turning to nationalist organisations, the leaflets may even have the opposite effect from that intended.
The group will need to think about how a leaflet might change someone's mind, and which messages will be powerful for the target group intended. This suggests that adopting and executing effective plans can be productive to aid smoking cessation. This is supported by our finding showing that those who completed more plans than the medium were also more effective in remaining non-smokers after six months. Our study is subject to some limitations.
First, we did not assess differences in levels of specificity of the action plans.
- Additional Library Resources in the Category of Organizational Change and Development.
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- Change Management Process.
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Van Osch and colleagues [ 16 ] found that plan specificity positively predicts point prevalence abstinence; medium to highly specific planning resulted in higher abstinence rates than less specific planning. Hence, assessing levels of specificity in future studies is recommended. Second, we did not make two separate scales of preparatory plans and coping plans in order to assess a potential different impact of both types of plans.
Develop a Business Case/Change Action Plan/Communications Plan
Sniehotta, [ 13 ]; Sniehotta, [ 14 ]; de Vet, [ 34 ], nor did we assess the exact timing of plan enactment e. Future studies should also assess the role of both types of planning [ 69 ] and assess the potential differential impact of preparatory and coping plan enactment. Third, our study had low retention rates at follow-up. However, because only low educational level and having a partner that smokes were related to dropout, the likelihood of a bias that those who quit smoking were more likely to provide follow-up data is small.
Our results reveal clearly the importance of the assessment of both action planning and plan enactment, factors that were also identified in a recent review of behavior-change strategies for smoking cessation [ 70 ].
Application of these behavior change strategies can be used by various methods such as mass-media campaigns, health counseling, and computer tailoring [ 16 , 62 , 71 - 73 ]. Our results support notions identified by others, such as Zhou and colleagues [ 74 ] indicating that motivational factors may be relevant for predicting smoking cessation attempts, but that other factors are also involved when predicting smoking cessation maintenance. Future studies about action planning should not only assess which plans are made but also which plans are enacted.
Our study reveals that smoking cessation is more likely to be successful when effective action plans are both formulated and executed. Our study also suggests that not all action plans are necessarily predictive of effective smoking cessation. Haug and colleagues [ 64 ], for instance, found that some constructs of the Transtheoretical model i. This illustrates the importance of longitudinal and experimental research as well as the use of a comprehensive model to identify which factors predict smoking cessation. Furthermore, it is relevant to study differences in decision-making for volitionally chosen and assigned action plans [ 45 ].
Although participation in goal setting may increase goal commitment [ 75 ], it is also conceivable that participants may choose ineffective action plans, as can be seen from the results in our study. Yet, it may be likely that a goal chosen with a high degree of confidence in the decision-making procedure used is more likely to be enacted than one fraught with uncertainty [ 76 ]. This suggests that action planning and levels of self-efficacy toward planning enactment may have interactive effects.