It is, therefore, necessary, more than ever before, to address and study effective medicinal plants to treat different types of hepatitis, including hepatitis B, and their action mechanisms, which makes this subject even more important. The action mechanism of a number of anti-hepatitis B drugs has been understood. Most of them exert an antiviral effect through inhibiting the transcription of HBV in hepatocytes; however, the action mechanism of many plants remains unknown and needs to be further studied.
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It should be noted that usually phenolic compounds in medicinal plants possess antimicrobial activities. Hence, other plants which have these compounds 84, 85 may possess anti-hepatitis activities, too, which worth examining. Article Information Sr No: 2. Download: Cited By: 0. Authors: Z. Samani and M. DOI: Published: 01 September, Int Res J Pharm ; 2 3 : Int J Pharmaceu Sci Res ; 2 3 : Liang TJ: Hepatitis B. The virus and disease. Hepatology ; 49 5S : S The Taiwan experience. Pathologiebiologie ; Rabiei Z, Bigdeli MR and Lorigooini Z: A review of medicinal herbs with antioxidant properties in the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences ; 17 12 : Madhuri S: Studies on oestrogen induced uterine and ovarian carcinogenesis and effect of ProImmu in rats. PhD thesis. Madhuri S and Pandey G: Some anticancer medicinal plants of foreign origin. Curr Sci ; 96 6 : Pandey G and Madhuri S: Some anticancer agents from plant origin.
Pl Arch ; 8 2 : Pandey G and Madhuri S: Significance of fruits and vegetables in malnutrition cancer. Pl Arch ; 10 2 : International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research ; 8 6 : Lahlou M: The success of natural products in drug discovery. Pharmacol Pharm ; 4: Journal of Applied Microbiology ; Lancet ; Journal of General Microbiology ; 6: Applied and Environmental Microbiology ; Journal of Food Science b; Applied and Environmental Microbiology a; Applied and Environmental Microbiology b; Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; Antiviral Research ; Phytotherapy Research ; Schnitzler P, Schon K and Reichling J: Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture.
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J Med Primatol ; Bruss V: Hepatitis B Virus morphogenesis. World J gastrointerol ; Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; 49 2 : Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences ; 20 5 : Govind P: Medicinal plants againts liver diseases. International Research Journal of Pharmacy ; 2 5 : Ghasemi S and Lorigooini Z: A review of significant molecular mechanisms of flavonoids in prevention of prostate cancer. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Biotechnol Lett ; 28 11 : J Viral Hepatitis 8: Wu YH: Naturally derived anti-hepatitis B virus agents and their mechanism of action.
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J Cell Biochem ; J Altern Complement Med ; J Asian Nat Prod Res. Fitoterapia ; Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 7: Phytother Res ; J Biosci Tech ; 2: Antivir Chem Chemother ; J Med Biomed Sci ; 2: Effect of Aqueous Extract of Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum On selected biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. International Journal of Pharmacology ; Pharmacognosy Reviews ; 9 17 : Lakshmi and Geetha: Glycyrrhiza glabra commonly known as licorice: A therapeutic review.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 3 4 : India, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phyto-pharmacological Research ; 1 6 : Gupta SK, Sharma A and Moktan S: A review on some species of Marchantia with reference to distribution, characterization and importance, World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences ; 4 4 : Meanwhile, culture supernatants were collected for the RT activity assay A , and aliquots of cells were stained with trypan blue dye and counted for viable cells B. DMSO was the solvent of the extracts and included as a negative control, while AZT was included as a positive control.
These data were representative of three independent experiments. To ascertain and establish non-toxic working concentrations of the extracts, we further determined effects of these extracts on cell survival and growth kinetics in the absence of HIV-1 infection. Jurkat cells without any treatment were also included as a control. Effects of the extracts on cell proliferation and survival. Jurkat cells were exposed to the extracts for various lengths of time as indicated.
Viable cells were determined using the trypan blue dye staining.
We next determined effects of these two extracts on syncytia formation. In addition, we also had uninfected and HIVinfected Jurkat cells as controls. The number of syncytia reached the highest at day 7 post infection. There were few syncytia in Jurkat cells that received no HIVinfection. These results are in agreement with the inhibitory effects of these extracts on HIV-1 replication Figure 1A.
Effect of the extracts on syncytia formation in HIVinfected Jurkat cells.
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Syncytia in each of these treatments were counted from 4 random fields from each one of the triplicate samples under a light microscope over the course of 2 weeks infection. The data represented the number of syncytia at day 7 post infection when the maximal number of syncytia was recorded in the infections receiving no treatments None or DMSO.
Jurkat cells without HIV-1 infection were included as a control Mock. HIV-1 is a member of the retrovirus family. The most important feature of these viruses is that replication of these viruses involves conversion of their RNA viral genome to proviral DNA, which is catalyzed by a unique virally encoded enzyme called reverse transcriptase RT.
To do so, we compared the RT enzymatic activity of HIV-1 virions in the presence and absence of the extracts. Direct effects of the extracts on the RT activity. DMSO 0. Thus, we next determined whether the extracts had any effects on HIV-1 entry. To achieve this, we took advantage of the replication-defective single round HIV-Luc reporter system [ 30 ]. Such a design allows in trans complementation of any viral envelope proteins including HIV-1 envelope proteins and one single round viral infection to accurately determine HIV-1 entry by the sensitive Luc activity assay.
To determine effects of these extracts on HIV-1 entry, we pre-incubated U We then determined the Luc activity of these cells. We also prepared HIV-Luc reporter viruses pseudotyped with vascular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein VSV-G or HIV-Luc viruses without any viral envelopes, which were positive and negative controls, respectively, in these experiments. We also included DMSO 0.
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Effects of the extracts on HIV-1 entry. Forty-eight hours post infection, cells were harvested for the Luc activity assay. We then recovered the viruses by centrifugation and used them to infect U CXCR4 cells. We cultured the cells for 48 hr before we harvested them for the Luc activity assay.
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Next, we first infected U We then harvested the cells for the Luc activity assay. Cells were harvested 48 hr for the Luc activity assay 48 hr after infection. Next, we extended our experiments to the dual tropic primary HIV-1 isolate To this end, we treated U In addition, we also determined effects of the extracts on HIV-1 Similarly to HXB2 viruses, Furthermore, these extracts did not have any direct inhibitory effects on the RT enzymatic activity of the HIV-1 Effects of the extracts on primary HIV-1 isolate Infection of HIV-Luc viruses without an envelope was included as the mock infection control.
HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped CCR5 cells. A-C : open bar for U CXCR4 cells; closed bar for U HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped with As part of further characterization of the anti-HIV activity of these two crude extracts, we next partitioned them into four subfractions using organic solvents of different hydrophobicity and polarity, that is, petroleum ether PE , chloroform CF , ethyl acetate EA and n-butanol BT. We then determined the effects of these subfractions on HIV-1 replication. Similar results were obtained from the single-round infection assay data not shown.