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This paper highlights the gaps, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the current reporting framework, which was developed for both long-standing obligations and mitigation pledges for the period to The paper also identifies possible improvements in the UNFCCC reporting framework in the context of the post transparency framework and nationally determined contributions NDCs for the post period.

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This paper focuses on projected forward-looking baselines that can be used both to inform national climate policy and to set goals that are defined relative to a business-as-usual BaU scenario. As some developing countries have defined national mitigation goals for in this way, the underlying assumptions and methodologies used in setting these emissions baselines are relevant for assessing the magnitude of both the country's expected total emissions reductions and the global aggregate emissions mitigation effort.

Currently, there is limited international guidance available on setting national GHG baselines. The resulting variance and lack of transparency makes it difficult to understand emissions pledges defined as relative to BaU, and difficult to compare emissions scenarios across countries. Moving towards international guidance on setting baselines could improve transparency, clarity and comparability, while still allowing countries to maintain diversity in approaches. This paper discusses good practice and presents options for how guidance might be developed for key elements of baseline setting.

The options are presented as "tiers" that move from less detailed to more detailed guidance. The first tier describes guidance that would leave maximum flexibility for individual countries, whilst encouraging transparency. The second tier offers more detailed guidance for countries with greater domestic resources and capabilities. Countries could adhere to the tiers according to their capabilities, although they would be encouraged to follow the more detailed approach. We are addressing the GHG emissions in our operations and integrating GHG emissions management into the execution of our business activities.

Further, we maintain and report inventories of our emissions, undertake projects to manage operating emissions and apply innovative technologies to improve the energy efficiency of our operations. We also assess the GHG emissions of our capital projects. Across our operations, the primary sources of our GHG emissions are combustion of fuels and, in some locations, flaring and venting of the natural gas methane that is extracted along with crude oil.

Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

In , emissions totaled 63 million metric tons of CO 2 -equivalent, calculated on a direct, operated basis. We are also informed by other frameworks like the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board. Since , we have reduced flaring by We have developed internal country-specific plans to minimize gas flaring, and we are a member of the World Bank—led Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership. Chevron flares natural gas when required for safety and operational purposes and in areas where pipelines or other gas transportation alternatives do not exist.

We have also made significant progress in reducing flare gas volumes in Angola through various projects. Compared to RCP8.

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Damage estimates only capture adaptation to the extent that populations employed them in the historical period. Sources: left adapted from Wuebbles et al. Direction for Future Research Coordinated Impacts Modeling Analyses Multisector impacts modeling frameworks can systematically address specific mitigation and adaptation research needs of the users of the National Climate Assessment.

Advancements to Address Research Needs from the Third National Climate Assessment While not an exact analog to this chapter, the Third National Climate Assessment NCA3 included a Research Needs chapter as part of the Response Strategies section that recommended five research goals: 1 improve understanding of the climate system and its drivers, 2 improve understanding of climate impacts and vulnerability, 3 increase understanding of adaptation pathways, 4 identify the mitigation options that reduce the risk of longer-term climate change, and 5 improve decision support and integrated assessment.

Description of evidence base Since NCA3, state, local, and tribal entities have announced new or enhanced efforts to reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions. Description of confidence and likelihood There is very high confidence that state, local, and private entities are increasingly taking, or are committed to taking, GHG mitigation action. Key Message 2: The Risks of Inaction In the absence of more significant global mitigation efforts, climate change is projected to impose substantial damages on the U.

Description of evidence base Recent scientific and economic advances are improving the ability to understand and quantify the physical and economic impacts of climate change in the United States, including how those risks can be avoided or reduced through large-scale GHG mitigation. Key Message 3: Avoided or Reduced Impacts Due to Mitigation Many climate change impacts and associated economic damages in the United States can be substantially reduced over the course of the 21st century through global-scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, though the magnitude and timing of avoided risks vary by sector and region very high confidence.

Description of evidence base There are multiple lines of research and literature available to characterize the effect of large-scale GHG mitigation in avoiding or reducing the long-term risks of climate change in the United States. Description of confidence and likelihood There is very high confidence that large-scale reductions in GHG emissions throughout the 21st century are projected to reduce the level of climate change projected to occur in the United States, along with the adverse impacts affecting human health and the environment.

Key Message 4: Interactions Between Mitigation and Adaptation Interactions between mitigation and adaptation are complex and can lead to benefits, but they also have the potential for adverse consequences very high confidence. Description of evidence base Global-scale reductions in GHG emissions are projected to reduce many of the risks posed by climate change. Description of confidence and likelihood There is very high confidence that the dual strategies of mitigation and adaptation being taken at national, regional, and local levels provide complementary opportunities to reduce the risks posed by climate change.

Ahluwalia, M. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists , 73 6 , — Krishnamurthy, A. Rownaghi, and F. Rezaei, Carbon capture and utilization update. Energy Technology , 5 6 , — Oleson, B.

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Jones, and R. Peng, Projected trends in high-mortality heatwaves under different scenarios of climate, population, and adaptation in 82 US communities. Climatic Change , doi: Weinberger, H. Roman, J. Neumann, A. Crimmins, N. Fann, J. Martinich, and P. Kinney, Impacts of oak pollen on allergic asthma in the United States and potential influence of future climate change. GeoHealth , 1 3 , 80— Baylis, and C. Hausman, Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States.

Chester, N. Johnson, B.

Greenhouse gas mitigation efforts are increasing in developing countries - Journal

Gorman, D. Eisenberg, I. Linkov, and M.

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Bates, Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States. Environmental Research Letters , 11 11 , Cai, A. Thomson, X. Zhang, R. Jones, B. McCarl, A. Crimmins, J. Martinich, J. Cole, S.

Ohrel, B. DeAngelo, J. McFarland, K. Strzepek, and B. Boehlert, Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: Benefits of global climate stabilization.

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Environmental Research Letters , 10 9 , Eisen, C. Barker, J. Garofalo, M.